2011 UNFCCC sessions
2011 Transitional Committee for the Design of the Green Climate Fund sessions
2010 UNFCCC sessions
2009 UNFCCC sessions
2008 UNFCCC sessions
29 November - 10 December 2010 | Cancun, Mexico | COP 16/CMP 16, SBI 33/SBSTA 33, AWG-KP 15/AWG-LCA 13
Governments met in Cancun, Mexico, from 29th November until 10th December 2010, for the 16th Conference of the Parties (COP16) under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the 6th Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP6). As a result of extensive negotiations, the COP and CMP adopted the Cancun Agreement-a set of decisions that will eventually lead to a new post-Kyoto regime and a new treaty. The Cancun decisions set in place the working groups and committees to develop the details of the institutional mechanisms that were established in Cancun to deal with adaptation, mitigation, financing, technology transfer, REDD+ and capacity building.
A major part of the success in Cancun can be attributed to the Mexican Government. Their tireless efforts before and during the meeting, as well as their diplomatic skills, consultations, and respect for transparency, made this conference the COP where the corner was turned and the negotiations within the UN framework were again seen as providing useful outcomes.
4 - 9 October 2010 | Tianjin, China | AWG-KP 14/AWG-LCA 12
Governments reconvened in Tianjin, China, 4th to 9th October, for the ongoing negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting addressed the two negotiating groups under the Bali Road Map: the Ad-hoc Working Groups on the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) and the Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA). This session was the last meeting of the AWGs before COP 16/CMP 6 in Cancun, Mexico, 29th November to 10th December 2010. Over 2,000 participants came to China, representing governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, academia, the private sector and the media.
The focus of work in Tianjin was on preparing text and positions for Cancun. Governments arrived in China with the shared understanding that a comprehensive, all encompassing agreement in 2010 will not be possible, and that a set of "COP Decisions" will be needed to capture progress and facilitate further negotiations in 2011/2012. These decisions will have standing under the Convention but not at the level of a legally-binding treaty.
2 - 6 August 2010 | Bonn, Germany | AWG-KP 13/AWG-LCA 11
Governments reconvened in Bonn for the ongoing negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. This meeting hosted the two negotiating groups under the Bali Road Map, the Ad-hoc Working Groups on the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) and on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA).
In the AWG-LCA, parties agreed on the organization of work by dividing into smaller discussion groups that focused on four specific topics: "Shared Vision", Mitigation, Adaptation, and Finance/Technology/Capacity Building. Progress was uneven across the groups. Some, such adaptation, were able to dive deeper into issues on a possible Adaptation Committee under the Convention, while others, such as mitigation, only accomplished a single read-through of the text. Finance discussions became stuck on ongoing disagreement about the role of a new Finance Board under the Convention.
In the AWG-KP, the Chair introduced a text bringing together the large number of options and proposals for amendments and extensions to the Kyoto Protocol. While a step forward, this text contains a very large number of areas of divergence, especially on numbers, new gases, and the rollover of Assigned Amount Units (AAUs) from the first to a second commitment period. There was also very little progress on Annex I targets.
31 May - 11 June 2010 | Bonn, Germany | SBI 32/SBSTA 32, AWG-KP 12/AWG-LCA 10
Parties convened for the 32nd session of the UNFCCC Convention in Bonn for further negotiations on Climate Change since the Copenhagen session. Under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol this meeting constituted the first full negotiating session since Copenhagen and is likely to be the first in a series of three meetings of the AWGs in 2010 before COP/CMP in Cancun, Mexico in December. The dicussions focussed on new materials prepared by the Chairs for negotiation, based on submissions by countries following the April 2010 Bonn session.
Two main issues characterised the discussion: first, the need for agreement on sources and management of financing and second, the need to resolve deep divisions over developing country mitigation actions and the MRV of those actions. On finance, parties discussed possible governance modalities and institutional arrangements for the financial mechanism under the Convention, including the new Green/Climate Fund (see Finance section in our summary). Since monetary issues remain important in further negotiations initial figures on fast start money have been presented.
9 - 11 April 2010 | Bonn, Germany | AWG-KP 11/AWG-LCA 9
Governments recently convened in Bonn for the first formal UNFCCC negotiating session since Copenhagen. At COP15/CMP5 in December 2009, the mandates and lifespan of both negotiating groups under the Bali Road Map were extended for a further year to COP16/CMP6 in Cancún, Mexico (the Ad-hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol-AWG-KP and the Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention-AWG-LCA). In this context, the April meeting addressed the next steps and procedures for 2010 for both AWGs. Around 1,800 delegates attended the three-day meeting, comprising governments, observer organisations, civil society, the private sector and media.
The meeting was not designed as a negotiating session and so did not explicitly deal with the substantive issues under consideration. Instead the focus was to decide how to take the negotiating process forward toward the agreed outcome mandated in Bali in 2007. However, the discussions addressed some of the fundamental questions facing parties after Copenhagen: First, what texts and materials from 2009 and Copenhagen should form the basis of work in 2010? And second, how to conduct negotiations on these texts, including through what groups, and with what high-level involvement? While seemingly unimportant, these questions went to the heart of fundamental issues on the role of the Copenhagen Accord and the future of the UN process.
7 - 18 December 2009 | Copenhagen, Denmark | COP 15/CMP 5, SBI 31/SBSTA 31, AWG-KP 10/AWG-LCA 8
The fifteenth Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the fifth Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 5) in Copenhagen, Denmark, marked the culmination of a two-year negotiating process to enhance international climate change cooperation under the Bali Road Map. Over 45,000 participants attended the meeting.
Significant progress was made on the negotiating texts in both the main negotiating tracks - that under the Convention (AWG-LCA) and that specifically for Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP). These texts (which address mitigation, adaptation, technology, capacity building, REDD+, and finance) had been refined throughout 2009, but still contained some bracketed areas of disagreement by the final days of Copenhagen. As a result, the COP and CMP resolved to extend the work of both AWGs to COP 16. Through 2010, Parties will continue to negotiate in all of these areas, with a view to adopting firm outcomes at COP 16/CMP 6, while taking note of the Copenhagen Accord.
After two weeks of negotiations, the COP and the CMP plenary sessions resolved to "take note" of a document prepared during the High-Level Segment of the conference - the Copenhagen Accord. The Accord provides political guidance and direction to the negotiations under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, and contains some operational elements that are effective immediately. The Copenhagen Accord represents unprecedented political commitment and involvement on the part of Heads of State and Government. During the final days of Copenhagen, leaders themselves engaged in the drafting process, highlighting their commitment to finding a common outcome on climate change.
2 - 6 November 2009 | Barcelona, Spain | AWG-KP 9-2/AWG-LCA 7-2
Governments convened in Barcelona for the penultimate negotiating session under the UNFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol (KP) in 2009.This meeting was the last opportunity for negotiators to discuss a global climate changeagreement before the 15th Conference of the Parties to be held in Copenhagen. Over 4,000participants attended the meeting, representing governments, intergovernmental and nongovernmentalorganizations, academia, the private sector, and media.
Overall, at the conclusion of the Barcelona negotiations, parties seemed generally disappointed by the lack progress made during the week. While options were further narrowed in each of the main negotiating areas, the text that will be discussed in Copenhagen contains multiple options and proposals that still differ on significant issues. Moreover, there has been little change in major negotiating positions, with parties showing little flexibility on the major issues.
Barcelona has, however, created a clearer picture of the format of a Copenhagen agreement. Although at the final plenary all the statements were for reaching a legally binding agreement in Copenhagen, many, including the UNFCCC Secretariat itself have now stated informally that a legally binding agreement is almost certainly not possible with the time remaining. Instead, to conclude the Bali Action Plan, parties will likely agree to a "politically binding" agreement based on the shared vision text currently under negotiation. This text would outline the "shared ambition" that includes the areas of agreement by Copenhagen in each negotiation theme. This agreement would then be supplemented with further uncompleted text on each theme, which would continue to be negotiated in 2010.
28 September - 9 October 2009 | Bangkok, Thailand | AWG-KP 9/AWG-LCA 7
Governments convened in Bangkok for the ongoing negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol (KP). These negotiations occurred after a flurry of recent international meetings – the Alliance of Small Island States Climate Change Summit, the Secretary-General's Summit on Climate Change, the opening of the UN General Assembly, Major Economies Forum, and the G-20 Meeting in Pittsburgh.
The first week of the Bangkok sessions largely focused on consolidating the negotiating text (produced after the Bonn Talks) and addressing some of core issues before going into "full negotiating mode" in the second week. Unlike the previous meetings in Bonn, the discussions have quickly centred on mitigation actions – what many parties see as the core, "make-or-break" issue. A largely unified group of Annex I parties has called for consideration of mitigation actions by developing country parties. The EU, Australia, and Japan have together emphasized that their post-2012 pledges are conditional on developing country action. This is signalling that the goodwill from last week, especially with Japan's highly praised announcement of new and more stringent targets, has been replaced with harder negotiating positions.
Download the UNDP summary on the UN Summit on Climate Change, held 22 September 2009 in New York in English.
10 - 14 August 2009 | Bonn, Germany | AWG-KP 8-2/AWG-LCA 6-2
From 10-14 August 2009, informal UN negotiating sessions on strengthened international climate action were held in Bonn, Germany as part of a series of meetings designed to culminate in a new global framework at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December. These sessions included talks under the Bali Action Plan process, where governments are focused on a negotiating text covering the issues of a "shared vision" for long-term cooperative action, enhanced action on adaptation, mitigation, finance, technology and capacitybuilding. These informal sessions also included talks under the Kyoto Protocol, which is focusing on proposed amendments, including ones on new emission reduction commitments for 37 industrialized countries (except for the US, which refused to ratify the treaty) for the second phase of the Protocol—the "post-2012" period.
From the outset, few expected any major political breakthroughs at these sessions, but progress was incremental, if not marginal, and focused on how best to proceed at this stage. While some developing countries preferred continuing general discussions, developed countries stressed the urgency of beginning "line-by-line" negotiations. Perhaps more disturbing, many developing countries also conveyed a feeling of nervousness and mistrust. They expressed a strong concern that the emerging deal did not take into account the interests of smaller developing countries, but was instead driven by the agenda of the major economies. By the sessions end, delegates seemed increasingly aware that the clock is ticking (114 days until Copenhagen) and that significant progress—including on the important issue of "trust building"—will be needed when governments meet again in six weeks time.
1 - 12 June 2009 | Bonn, Germany | SBI 30/SBSTA 30, AWG-KP 8/AWG-LCA 6
Governments recently reconvened in Bonn for the ongoing negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. These negotiations constitute the second in a series of six major UN negotiating sessions this year that are expected to culminate in a long-term international climate change agreement in Copenhagen in December. The Copenhagen outcome is intended to follow on the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, which expires at the end of 2012. The international community agreed in Bali in 2007 to conclude these current negotiations in Copenhagen in December 2009. Bonn also hosted the 30th sessions of the Convention's subsidiary bodies, which focus on ongoing work. Over 3,500 participants came to Bonn, representing governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, academia, the private sector and the media.
Negotiations under the Convention—the "Bali Action Plan" process—concentrated on further developing a negotiating text, using a Chair's draft as the starting point. These negotiations, formally known as the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (the AWG-LCA), provided governments with an opportunity to clarify and develop their proposals. After completing two "readings" of the text, the talks resulted in a 200-page draft negotiating text, which will be forwarded to the next meeting in Bonn in August. The text covers all the main elements of the Bali Action Plan, namely: a shared vision for long-term cooperative action, mitigation, adaptation, finance, and technology.
29 March - 8 April 2009 | Bonn, Germany | AWG-KP 7/AWG-LCA 5
The latest UNFCCC sessions on a future climate change regime, held in Bonn last week, saw notable progress on the key issues under discussion, as governments continued working towards negotiating texts under the two intergovernmental processes on a future climate change regime. The sessions produced some important signals on what a "Copenhagen Agreed Outcome" must contain, but also brought to the forefront many of the difficult issues to be resolved in the year ahead as governments work to fulfil the Bali Road Map by the fifteenth Conference of the Parties (COP 15) in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2009.
Under the Convention, governments considered a "focus" document produced by the Chair and held in-depth discussion on key elements of the Bali Action Plan, namely mitigation, adaptation, finance and technology, as well as on a shared vision for long-term cooperative action under the Convention. By the meeting's end, the process seemed to be on track and governments completed the final stages of clarifying ideas and options for inclusion in a negotiating text for the upcoming June session. While the content is still general, the form of some issues, such as those related to nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and a framework for adaptation, has begun to take shape.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, the key focus was emission reduction targets for industrialized countries beyond 2012, and on legal issues, including possible amendments to the Protocol. With regard to emission targets, the numbers discussed so far fell well short of the range recommended by the IPCC, and developing countries stressed the need for developed countries to show greater ambition. Governments also discussed possible changes to the Protocol's market mechanisms, as well as issues relating to land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF), and the potential consequences of response measures on developing countries.
Download the IISD summary in English, French, Spanish and Japanese.
1 - 12 December 2008 | Poznan, Poland | COP 14/CMP 4, SBI 29/SBSTA 29, AWG-KP 6-2/AWG-LCA 4
The United Nations Climate Change Conference in Poznań was held from 1-12 December 2008. The conference involved a series of events, including the fourteenth Conference of the Parties (COP 14), the fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 4) and meetings of the four subsidiary bodies. The main focus in Poznań was on long-term cooperation and the post-2012 period, when the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period expires. In 2007, negotiators meeting in Bali approved the Bali Road Map setting COP 15/CMP 5 in December 2009 as the deadline for agreeing on a framework for action after 2012. Poznań therefore marked the halfway mark. The major outcomes focused largely on the negotiating process itself, but delegates also engaged in a number of substantive debates that previewed some of the difficult issues ahead.
While Poznań resulted in some progress, there were no major breakthroughs. Key outcomes include the 2009 work programmes of the Bali Action Plan process under the Convention (AWG-LCA) and the Kyoto Protocol process on emission reductions for developed countries (AWG-KP). Other outcomes covered a range of topics important to developing countries, including technology transfer, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), national communications and capacity building.
Governments also discussed the issue of disaster management, risk assessment and insurance—essential to help developing countries cope with the effects of climate change. On the final day, negotiations continued into the night over two issues relating to finance for developing countries: institutional arrangements for the Adaptation Fund, and a proposal by developing countries to raise adaptation funding through a broader levy on international emissions trading mechanisms.
Download the complete UNDP summary in English.