Finance has been identified as a key issue under the Bali Action Plan for the discussion on a post-2012 climate change agreement. In addition to their current needs, developing countries will need considerable financial assistance for mitigation, adaptation and technology to address climate change in the long term. The exact amount of investment and financial flows needed is not known, but it could amount to tens of billions of dollars per year and will require significant shifts in investments and an overall net increase in global investment and financial flows.

Evolving Financing Proposals and Positions in the UNFCCC Negotiations. This paper describes some of the proposals and positions feeding into the negotiations on a future financial architecture for climate change under the UNFCCC as of July 2009. Available in English.

Negotiations on Additional Investment and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change in Developing Countries: A background briefing document on the history and context of the international climate talks on financing (UNDP, 2008). Available in English, Spanish, French, Russian, Arabic, and Chinese.

Financing adaptation to climate change: issues and priorities (CEPS, 2008). This paper aims to facilitate discussions on adaptation finance by presenting a summary overview of the current state of knowledge and policy initiatives, and by outlining a number of issues that would need to be considered in the negotiation process. English only.

Investment and financial flows to address climate change: An update. Technical paper. (UNFCCC, 2008). Presents different options, tools and mechanisms to enhance financing for mitigation, adaptation and technology cooperation for an effective response to climate change. An update to paper published by the UNFCCC Secretariat in 2007. English only.

Mechanisms to manage financial risks from direct impacts of climate change in developing countries. Technical paper. (UNFCCC, 2008). Provides information on the financial mechanisms used to manage risks from the direct impacts of climate change, including insurance and other forms of non-insurance risk spreading and sharing. English only.