Climate change mitigation refers to the reduction of emissions of GHGs from sources, such as burning fossil fuels, and the enhancement of "sinks and reservoirs" that can store CO2 (such as forests). Mitigation has been at the heart of the international climate negotiations from the outset, but reaching agreement on this issue presents a major challenge.

A significant development under the Bali Action Plan is that both developed and developing countries are to take "measurable, reportable and verifiable" mitigation actions. For developed countries, these should be in the form of commitments to absolute emission reductions. For developing countries, mitigation actions are to be developed in a bottom-up manner to achieve reductions relative to baseline emissions, and supported by technology and finance.

Conceptual Frameworks for implementing LEDS & NAMAs (UNDP, 2012) A number of institutions, including UNDP, have described conceptual frameworks to developing Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) and Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). This paper briefly summarises some of these frameworks in case it will be useful for you as you prepare your project documents. The approaches can be mapped across a similar set of outputs or activities. Different framewroks go into more depth in different areas. Therefore you may wish to select elements from different approaches to tailor to your national circumstances as you develop your project documents.

How-to Guide: Low-emission Development Strategies and Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Eastern Europe and CIS (UNDP, 2010) The transition to low-emission development in both developed and developing economies has been recognized internationally as an imperative to stabilizing greenhouse gasconcentrations in line with a 2°C temperature increase scenario. However to date there is only limited practical experience of designing and implementing comprehensive national low emission development strategies (LEDS). At the same time, fast start financing committed by developed countries at the Copenhagen Climate Conference 2009 is already supporting countries in developing and implementing LEDSs and NAMAs. This guide is designed to help policy makers and policy experts to determine opportunities for low-emission development and to design national LEDS or NAMAs in their respective countries. Available in English and Russian.

Food Security and Agricultural Mitigation in Developing Countries: Options for Capturing Synergies (FAO, 2009) The report highlights the mitigation potential from agriculture of improvements in cropland and grazing land management and soil restoration. It calls for considering food security, agricultural mitigation, adaptation and development in global agendas and national strategies for climate change and food security, as well as up-front financing. It stresses the need for leveraging finance for terrestrial-based climate mitigation and underscores the lack of consensus on measurable, reportable and verifiable requirements. Available in English.

Climate Change Mitigation Negotiations, with an Emphasis on Options for Developing Countries: A background briefing document on the history and context of the international climate talks on mitigation (UNDP, 2008). Available in English, Spanish, French, Russian, Arabic, and Chinese.

Fourth Assessment Report: Working Group III, Mitigation of Climate Change (IPCC, 2007): The report analyses mitigation options for the main economic sectors in the near-term. English.

Financing Mitigation and Adaptation: Where should the funds come from and how should they be delivered? (European Climate Platform, 2008). The authors discuss the need to shift investment patterns and identify possible instruments to assist this process. English.

Climate change mitigation: tapping the potential of agriculture (MEA Bulletin Article No. 65). Short article by IISD and FAO outlining why agriculture needs to be part and parcel of efforts to meet international and national climate change objectives. English.