A mix of existing and new technologies and practices is needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and allow developing countries to "leapfrog" to cleaner, low-carbon energy pathways. Under the Convention, developed countries and Annex II Parties are to take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to developing countries to enable them to implement the Convention. There are similar provisions under the Kyoto Protocol. Technology transfer and deployment is therefore one of the four "building blocks" of the Bali Action Plan.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) has published the fifth report of its clean energy technology roadmap series on wind energy, which aims to provide input to negotiators at Copenhagen as they attempt to develop the optimal solution for climate and energy policies. Available in English.

Key Functions for a UNFCCC Technology Institutional Structure: Identifying Convergence in Country Submissions This paper identifies the key elements needed to ensure enhanced action on technology transfer and development and then evaluates the approaches taken in major country positions. It finds a number of important convergences in these positions and identifies four types of institutions that recur in country positions: central bodies, dedicated funds, regional institutions and coordinating committees. Matching these institutions to functional needs suggests that a combination of institutional structures best meets all the institutional needs of a technology agreement. Available in English

Delhi Statement on Global Cooperation on Climate Technology was adopted at the end of the high level meeting on climate change technology development and transfer held in New Delhi, India during 22-23 October 2009. It emphasizes the need to accelerate the large scale deployment of climate friendly technologies and to minimize the time-lag between their initial development, transfer and deployment particularly in the developing countries. Available in English

Handbook for Conducting Technology Needs Assessment for Climate Change (prepared by UNDP and UNFCCC, under the auspices of the Expert Group on Technology Transfer, in cooperation with the Climate Technology Initiative, 2009). Available in English

Mitigation Technology Challenges: Considerations for National Policy Makers to Address Climate Change: A background briefing document on the history and context of the international climate talks on technology (UNDP, 2008). Available in English, Spanish, French, Russian, Arabic, and Chinese.