Two new toolkits on Climate Change

The CARE International Poverty, Environment and Climate Change Network (PECCN) has released two new digital adaptation toolkits on CBA and Integration. Go to for a compressive list or go directly to the kits at the links below.

COMMUNITY-BASED ADAPTATION PROJECTS TOOLKIT The Toolkit offers a practical "how-to" guide for practitioners as they go through the project cycle. It includes step-by-step guidance and recommended tools for all stages of the project cycle, along with links to useful resources and checklists for key project documents. It also includes CBA Project Standards to support high-quality analysis, design, implementation and knowledge management (including monitoring & evaluation).

Direct links:




Portuguese: (coming soon)

INTEGRATING CLIMATE CHANGE INTO DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS TOOLKIT The Toolkit provides practical assistance for adapting design, implementation, monitoring & evaluation to the challenges posed by climate change. Its step-by-step structure helps users design climate-resilient interventions with sustainable impacts. The Toolkit also includes simple checklists to ensure that activities don't inadvertently increase people's vulnerability to climate change. It provides guidelines and recommended tools for all stages of the project cycle, as well as practical examples. Water resource management and agricultural projects are specifically highlighted, as they were prioritised for field testing by beta-versions of the Toolkit.


Understanding the Scale of Invesment for Universal Energy Access: New Paper

Understanding the Scale of Investment for Universal Energy Access

by Morgan Bazilian, Patrick Nussbaumer, Erik Haites, Michael Levi, Mark Howells, and Kandeh Yumkella

Specific to climate change interests, the paper draws on the recent literature on the scale of climate change investment.


Significantly increasing access to modern energy services in developing countries requires strong and immediate action. Energy access is crucial to enhance economic and social development, reduce poverty, and contribute to international security. To help provide clarity in this area, support political decision making, and inform the design of financial responses, we consider the overall scale of spending required to meet universal access to modern energy services. We review the existing literature at the global, regional, national, and project levels and disaggregate cost estimates in order to provide increased transparency through comparable metrics. We then describe a new methodology and calculate three new cost scenarios that attempt to address several existing analytical gaps. We conclude that the total cost of providing (near) universal access is likely to be considerably higher than published estimates which often focus primarily on capital costs. While recognizing the coarse nature of our analysis, we find that the annual cost of universal access to electricity and clean cooking ranges from USD 14 to 136 (USD 12 - 134 billion for electrification and USD 1.4 to 2.2 billion for clean cooking).

Published in the journal Geopolitics of Energy (Volume 32, Issue 10 and 11).

The author can be contacted at: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

New publications available on our publication database, August 30th 2010

Business and Cimate Change: Key Challenges in the Face of Policy Uncertainty and Economic Recession

In bail-out plans and policies to address the economic recession and credit crisis, climate aspects have figured prominently: This article examines recent policy and economic developments and their relevance for business and climate change, considering the implications of the economic slowdown, declining oil prices and bail-outs. Dilemmas in the economy-climate-policy nexus in the current setting are also placed in the broader context related to innovating for climate change, to highlight some of the competitive, technological and market issues that need to be taken into account to break the present dead-lock that hinder radical moves to a low-carbon economy. Find the full report on our publication database.

Facilitating an International Agreement on Climate Change: Adaptation to Climate Change

This report sets forth innovative recommendations to enable, finance, and govern global adaptation measures, including a recommendation that US$1 to $2 billion of additional official development assistance (ODA) be provided immediately by developed countries to help Least Developed Countries (especially in Africa), selected small island developing states (below a certain gross domestic product), and other most vulnerable developing countries that are already suffering from climate impacts. Please download this publication on our database.

The Carbon Footprint of Nations: Wealth and Responsibility

The paper presents the first carbon footprint analysis of the most important economies of the world accounting for greenhouse gas emissions caused by the production of internationally traded goods. A nation is made responsible for the carbon footprint of its imports, but not for its exports. The base year is 2001. The analysis shows that the highest carbon footprint occurs in rich countries in Europe (Switzerland, Finland, the Netherlands), North America (the U.S. and Canada) and Asia-Pacific (e.g., Australia). The carbon footprints of most of these countries are higher than the territorial emissions because the carbon footprint of imports is larger than that of exports. Find this journal paper on our publication database.

REDD: Stepping Aside Permanence and Impermanence

From its very beginning REDD has been considered, at best, an impermanent, and by implication, an imperfect route to mitigation of climate change. In a recent work this notion of impermanence of REDD has been challenged. Ensuring permanence implies physically ensuring that the carbon not emitted due to REDD activities stays that way. And insuring permanence is like all insurances – compensate when a loss does occur. And permanence under REDD should mean a combination of ensuring and insuring. Ensure permanence as far as possible and plug the possibilities of impermanence through insurance.

Human Development in a Changing Climate: A Framework for Climate Finance

This paper outlines a climate finance framework to assist developing countries to move to low-emissions, climate-resilient growth paths. The challenge in climate finance is to find ways to mobilize a variety of resources at scale, while at the same time ensuring that it can be delivered with sufficient speed to where it is most needed. A number of proposals have recently been put forward on the mobilization of resources for climate finance, as well as on possible governance structures for delivering these resources. The majority of these proposals address the issues of raising and delivering climate change finance separately. This paper takes an integrated approach to the issue, as mechanisms chosen to raise finance will affect the access to, and efficient use of, these resources. Find the full version for download on our publication database.

New Publications available on our publication database, August 20th 2010

August 17th, 2010: The World Bank, Official policy statement according the Adaptation Fund

The World Bank underlines that countries can directly access the Adaptation Fund through a National Implementing Entity (NIE). Alternatively, the Fund can be accessed through a Multilateral Implementing Entity (MIE). The World Bank underscores that both NIEs and MIEs must be accredited by the Adaptation Fund Board. The statement notes that currently, the World Bank and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) are accredited MIEs, and that other MIE applications are under consideration. It also underlines that any application to the Adaptation Fund Board needs to be endorsed by the host government through the National Designated Authority (DNA). The World Bank further clarifies that the Philippines DNA has not endorsed any proposals to the Adaptation Fund and informs that a proposal for the Adaptation Fund for a flood early warning system for Metro Manila was discussed with the Bank, but that it had not been officially submitted to the World Bank. It also states that a multi-stakeholder consultation in the Philippines decided to defer the proposal to the Adaptation Fund Board pending the development of the Philippines' National Climate Change Action Plan.

Gender Mainstreaming Guide for the Africa Biogas Partnership Programme (ABPP)

This Guide targets non-gender specialists in recognizing and addressing gender issues in their work, with the intention of demystifying gender, and clarifying the concept and practice of "gender mainstreaming" within ABPP. Accompanied by a Resource Kit, this Guide uses experiences from Asia, as well as Africa. The guide is not only limited to the ABPP and can be used by other biogas interventions as well. Find the guide for download on our publication database.

New opinion piece on Climate Finance and Europe

"One of the most depressing aspects of the lost momentum on the post 2012 deal has been the lack of effective leadership from the EU. Despite the strong cards it held for Copenhagen with well-placed Scandinavian ministers, supported by the personal commitment of the heads of France, UK and Germany, it emerged as isolated and weak. The ambiguous status of the Copenhagen (CPH) Accord within the UNFCCC system added to uncertainties. The EU then played its key card, which is its adherence to its unilateral 20% cut by 2020, and not the 30% cut which was contingent on a global deal. Recently however the new Climate Commissioner Connie Hedegaard has been trying to reinvigorate the negotiations showing that the 30% cut would now not be so costly for the EU to adopt. But there is a long way to go if Cancun is to deliver anything credible.

Focusing on the critical finance dimension, the situation has become more intractable since Copenhagen because larger EU finance issues have emerged. With the credibility of the Euro undermined and the financial crisis putting pressure on leadership in the UK, France and Germany, an EU drive has been lacking. Worse still the Greek crisis has revealed a deepening leadership crisis stemming from an anti-Brussels backlash in member states." Find the full statement on our publication database.

How might low-income countries respond to climate change out to 2030?

That is the question addressed in a new report exploring not only the direct environmental impacts of climate change, but also the social, political, psychological and economic shifts that it may cause, and it aims to put climate change at the forefront of thinking on development. The report demonstrates clearly that low-income countries cannot and should not have to make a false choice between addressing climate change and development. It shows how the two are fundamentally and inextricably linked, and explains the value of a holistic approach that addresses them together. It is designed to aid long-term thinking, to ensure that decisions made today continue to have positive consequences in the years to come. The report is designed as a practical tool for anyone who has a stake in the future of low-income countries, including NGOs, businesses, policy makers and low-income country governments. It contains a 'horizon scan', which examines the key issues that will affect low-income countries over the next 20 years, and four scenarios, which explore how these issues may play out in different ways, highlighting challenges and opportunities. It also outlines seven key implications for development agencies and other organisations working in low-income countries. You can download the full report on our publication database.

Biodiversity and Climate Change Law: A failure to communicate?

Climate change driven by global warming is substantially modifying important ecosystems and threatens to destroy great swaths of biodiversity. At both the international and state levels, two separate sets of laws exist - one addresses biodiversity and endangered species (e.g., the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity, and the U.S. Endangered Species Act and comparable laws in other countries) and the other addresses greenhouse gas emissions. Each body of law poses the same (but mirrored) analytic question. That is, to what extent do the domestic and international laws of biodiversity consider climate change in their regulatory frameworks? And, conversely, to what extent do the emerging international and domestic climate change legal regimes account for biodiversity in their regulatory schemes? Are the regimes compatible, or do they operate at cross-purposes? Is the extent of incorporation adequate and effective? If not, how could the laws be improved to incorporate biodiversity concerns into climate change decisions, and to fold climate change concerns into the operation of biodiversity laws.

For instance, will greenhouse gas offset projects and emission trading regimes promote monoculture reforestation at the expense of biodiversity, or will biodiversity protection and enhancement be encouraged in evaluating projects? Conversely, the effects of warming are already being felt by a variety of ecosystems from coral reefs to Arctic sea ice; does this trigger legal obligations under biodiversity laws, and if so, what kind of remedies might be available under those laws? This paper argues the climate change legal regime and biodiversity legal regime operate on separate paths that fail to link biodiversity and climate change policy into decision making. As a result, there is a significant risk that climate change policy will be inconsistent with biodiversity goals and that biodiversity policy could interfere with climate change policy goals. Please find this journal article in its full version on our publication database.

New publications available on our publication database, August 16th 2010

New report: Rising Temperatures, Rising Tensions: Climate change and the risk of violent conflict in the Middle East

This report draws on the links between climate change, peace and conflict. The report makes three key points: 1. The legacy of conflict in the countries of the Levant undermines the ability of countries and communities in the region to adapt to climate change. 2. The report shows that climate change itself poses real security concerns to the region. It may increase competition for scarce water resources, complicating peace agreements. It may intensify food insecurity, thereby raising the stakes for the return or retention of occupied land. 3. Nevertheless, the report points out there is much that national governments and authorities, civil society and the international community can do address the challenge of climate change, and in so doing, address some of the threats it may pose to regional peace and security. To view the full report please go to our publication database.

Integration of energy and climate policies in LAC countries (This U.N ECLAC publication is only available in Spanish: Energia y Cambio Climático: oportunidades para una política integrada en América Latina y el Caribe)

During the next decade the LAC region will face a new international context for its energy policy characterized by two exogenous developments. Namely: a) the implementation of a strenghtened international climate mitigation regime in OECD countries (and other export markets), and; b) continued energy security concerns due to international oil market volatility and the investment gap in energy infrastructure accumulated in most countries during the last decade. Addressing both challenges demands an integrated approach towards energy policy during the 2010-2030 period. LAC energy policy will need to accomodate: a) increased energy access and supply to sustain economic growth and meet poverty reduction goals (MDGs), with; b) increased energy efficiency gains and energy sector investment aligned with international climate concerns. Both are necessary to meet the region's development priorities while avoiding unnecessary political and/or trade pressures from the international community embarked in climate change mitigation effort. Chapters 3-5 aim to identify such integrated policy opportunities based on the region's relative position in the global energy balance and contribution to CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (from electric power generation, transport and other energy production).

In What Format and Under What Timeframe Would China Take on Climate Commitments? A Roadmap to 2050

Given that China is already the world's largest carbon emitter and its emissions continue to rise rapidly in line with its industrialization and urbanization, there is no disagreement that China eventually needs to take on binding greenhouse gas emissions caps. However, the key challenges are when that would occur and what credible interim targets China would need to take on during this transition period. This paper takes these challenges by mapping out the roadmap for China's specific commitments towards 2050. Specifically, I suggest that China make credible quantified domestic commitments during the second commitment period, commit to voluntary no lose targets during the third commitment period, adopt binding carbon intensity targets during the fourth commitment period, and take on binding emissions caps starting the fifth commitment period and aimed for the global convergence of per capita emissions by 2050. These proposed commitments should be viewed as China's political commitments, not necessarily China's actual takings in the ongoing international climate change negotiations, in order to break the current political impasse between developed and developing countries. It is worthwhile China considering these political commitments either on its own or through a joint statement with U.S. and other major countries, provided that a number of conditions can be worked out. These commitments are principles, and still leave flexibility for China to work out details as international climate change negotiations move on. But in the meantime, they signal well ahead that China is seriously committed to addressing climate change issues, alleviate, if not completely remove, U.S. and other industrialized country's concerns about when China would get in, an indication that the whole world has long awaited from China, help U.S. to take on long-expected emissions commitments, and thus pave the way for reaching an international climate agreement at Copenhagen.

Summary of August 2010 UNFCCC Negotiations & Issue-by-Issue Assessment of Current Progress

UNFCCC Negotiations in Bonn: Summary of August 2010 UNFCCC Negotiations & Issue-by-Issue Assessment of Current Progress

Governments recently reconvened in Bonn for the ongoing negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. This meeting hosted the two negotiating groups under the Bali Road Map, the Ad-hoc Working Groups on the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) and on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA). This session was the third of four meetings of the AWGs before COP 16/CMP 6 in Cancun, Mexico in December. Over 1,000 participants came to Bonn, representing governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, academia, the private sector and the media. Find the full summary in English by following this link or by entering our publication database. Translations in Spanish, French and Russian will be following soon.

New publications on Climate Finance and CDM on our publication database, August, 12th 2010

NGOs and the Clean Development Mechanism - constraints and opportunities in the discourse of EU consultations

When creating the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the Kyoto Protocol described three main aims: meeting greenhouse gas reduction targets, sustainable development, and providing emissions cuts for the lowest cost. This study argues that these three aims represent powerful discourses, justifying the European Union's continued reliance on offset credits from the CDM. Furthermore, when advising policy-makers, NGOs may find it difficult to overtly oppose offsetting due to the power of these ideas. However, it also argues that these three discourses may provide some opportunities for NGOs to form new narratives, highlighting some of the contradictions inherent in offsetting.

Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation:Issue Brief No.5

This short note examines the issues around climate change and China's agricultural sector, taking into account the myriad challenges facing the country: economic development, eliminating poverty, ensuring long-term food security, adapting to climate change and mitigating the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. Please go on our publication database to download the full study.

Carbon Concerns: How Standards And Labelling Initiatives Must Not Limit Agricultural Trade From Developing Countries
 Issue Brief No.3:

This brief examines the current status of carbon labelling initiatives in the food industry. It looks at how embedded carbon is likely to be marketed and how this phenomenon may affect agricultural trade from developing countries.
Please find the full policy briefings uploaded on our publication database.

New policy review paper: Regaining momentum for international climate policy beyond Copenhagen

This paper analyzes why the 'Copenhagen Accord' might fail to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement and how to invigorate momentum for the upcoming negotiations. The paper combines insights from the social sciences, climate science, policy analysis and innovation economics. This papaer seeks to contribute some fresh thoughts to the rich debate on post-2012 climate policy and the open-access journal article is available from: as well as uploaded to our database.

Policy Brief on: New Climate Finance Policy Brief on climate finance.

This is the second paper in a series of policy briefs which provides independent commentary on current themes associated with the international debate on climate finance. The papers are prepared by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and Heinrich Boell Foundation and posted on the climate funds update website as well as on our publication database.

New publications available, August, 9th 2010

Report of the World Bank: The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change.

The study estimates costs of adaptation between US$70-100 billion per year between now and 2050. Among the lessons from seven case studies and a global study, the report highlights that eliminating poverty is central to both development and adaptation, since poverty exacerbates vulnerability to weather variability as well as climate change. It also recommends that governments do not rush into making long-lived investments in adaptation unless these are robust to a wide range of climate outcomes or until the range of uncertainty about future weather variability and climate has narrowed. The study argues that investments should start with low-regret options, with measures that tackle the weather risks that countries already face, such as increased investment in water storage in drought-prone basins or protection against storms and flooding in coastal zones and/or urban areas. Find the Synthesis Report of this study on our publication database.

New article: Have We Been Asking the Wrong Questions About Climate Change Science?

Why Strong Climate Change Ethical Duties Exist Before Scientific Uncertainties are Resolved. This new acrticle is examining on the ethical viewpoint of climate change. The author argues that for thirty years in climate change science we have been asking the wrong questions from an ethical perspective. Please find the full publication in english by entering our publication database.

New REDD-plus briefing paper

This briefing paper assists developing country negotiators who are working on REDD-plus. It is available in English, and will be available soon in French and Spanish. FIELD provides this information on a neutral, non partisan basis. FIELD also welcomes feedback on the briefing paper. Please find the paper on our publication database as well as on the LULUCF page.

Governing Clean Development: A Framework for Analysis

This paper constructs a framework for understanding and explaining the governance of clean development in order to generate insights about who is governing clean development, by what means, for whom and how effectively. Understanding key governance dimensions is critical to appreciating the extent to which and the ways in which flows of public and private investment into the developing world can be harnessed to the goals of clean development, principally in the area of energy. The governance structures and decision‐making processes of CD 'providers' and 'recipients' may provide important clues as to why the governance of CD 'from above', produces such diverse and uneven outcomes once mediated and translated by forms of 'governance' from below, principally at the national level in the first instance. Such a framework usefully highlights governance gaps and blind‐spots, issues of policy coherence and coordination and the distributional consequences of existing patterns of CD governance. This provides the basis for assessing the social and environmental effectiveness of existing initiatives in this area as well as identifying areas for future reform. Find the full publication in english by entering our publication database.

Study release: Status and Future of the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R) Carbon Sector

This study presents new findings on forest carbon market participants with an outlook for the A/R carbon sector. It serves as a contribution to better understand the A/R sector and increase transparency in this diversified and fragmented marketplace. The study informs potential buyers on the supply and volumes of A/R credits. It characterizes A/R projects that are coming on-stream and identifies what contractual arrangements project developers require for their A/R projects. It also identifies what project developers require from forest carbon standards and determines forest carbon standards' popularity. Find the full study on our publication database.

ICTSD-IPC: Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Developing Countries:
Policy Options for Innovation and Technology Diffusion

This paper highlights technological and institutional innovations required to meet the challenges of food security, agricultural development and climate change adaptation and mitigation; explores the constraints to their development, transfer and dissemination; and suggests ways to overcome such constraints. Find the full publication in english by entering our publication database.

New Publications added to database August, 4th 2010

Note: All new publications are available only in english.

New GSI report: Biofuels – At What Cost? Government support for ethanol and biodiesel in the European Union – 2010 Update

Both ethanol and biodiesel – benefit from large financial support in almost all European Union Member States. This report finds that, in 2008, total transfers in support of biofuels associated with the policies of the EU and its Member States amounted to € 3.01 billion. The decline in support per litre is striking: where in 2006 it was equal to € 0.74 and € 0.50 per litre of ethanol and biodiesel consumed, by 2008 it had decreased to € 0.24 and € 0.22 per litre consumed, respectively. Several factors are responsible for this change. One of the most important is that excise tax exemptions, which represent the largest share of support, have been reduced in several Member States, while mandatory blending targets gained in importance - and the latter are difficult to measure in terms of financial support. The study concludes with several recommendations for policy-makers. Please find the full note in english on our publication database.

New OIES Energy & Environment Report on:

Addressing Large Developing Country Emissions: The Case for Strategic Sino-European Collaboration under Joint Commitments

Aim of this report, published by the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, is to explore the potential for addressing developing country greenhouse gas emissions at scale through bilateral 'Joint Commitment Framework Agreements' (JCFA). It focuses on the potential to reduce the growth of coal-based emissions in the Chinese power sector through large-scale collaboration between European and Chinese enterprises in the production of electricity from wind. The Report examines the proposition that under a Sino-European JCFA European companies will be more likely to collaborate with Chinese enterprises to transfer and develop low carbon technologies and know-how that will help to achieve jointly agreed carbon emission reductions in the Chinese power sector. Find this full report on our publication database.

New report: Core Elements of National Reports

This note is enhancing the framework for measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) mitigation actions, commitments and support in a post-2012 climate agreement could help facilitate strategic and cost-effective decision-making on climate policy and generate transparent and comparable information. This paper explores the possible functions, form, timing and content of future national reports under the UNFCCC, focusing on National Communications, identifies what information is needed at the national and international level post-2012, and provides insights for possible new guidelines for national reports. This paper can be downloaded on our publication database. Previous work on MRV can be downloaded as well from

Report on Measuring Price Subsidies Using the Price-Gap Approach: What does it leave out?

In the wake of India's move in June to reduce its fuel subsidies, and the IEA's announcement that US$ 557 billion was spent on fossil-fuel subsidies by 37 of the world's economies in 2008, the measurement of subsidies is a pressing and sensitive issue – what does it capture and what does it miss? The note got prepared under the International Institute for Sustainable Development's (IISD) Bali to Copenhagen project, Earth Track founder Doug Koplow looks at one of the most commonly employed methodologies for estimating fossil-fuel subsidies: the examination of differences between the observed price for a good or service in the economy against what that price 'should' be without the government programs, the price-gap method.

New Paper by Anja Kollmuss, Michael Lazarus, Gordon Smith:

Discounting Offsets: Issues and Options

The note describes the different types of discounting, their objectives and their potential impacts on carbon markets. Discount factors can be used to strengthen the environmental integrity of offsets and to give preference to certain projects types or geographic regions. Applying a discount can also, in theory, enable the use of offsets to provide a net environmental benefit. At the same time, discounting could have potentially negative effects on the efficiency of carbon markets and might increase the fraction of non-additional credits. All discounting approaches face the difficulty of having to establish the right discount rate that is politically acceptable, maximizes benefits and minimizes negative effects. While discounting is no silver bullet – its potential pitfalls are significant – it should be considered by policy makers as a mechanism to address specific objectives, in particular to remedy perverse incentives and to maximize the environmental benefit of offset markets. Find the full note on our publication database.

Engaging the Private Sector in the Potential Generation of REDD+ Carbon Credits: An Analysis of Issues

The objective of the study is to analyze the role the private sector could play in investing in activities that could generate carbon market credits from REDD+ and the implications this has for designing such market mechanisms. The research focuses on ways in which the private sector could be incentivized to invest in REDD+ activities when the crediting baseline is set at a national level. The paper finds the benefits of private sector engagement outweigh the potential risks. The section on market mechanisms includes analysis of different options for operationalizing the concept of "nesting" projects in national accounting systems and compares this to other REDD market approaches. The final section identifies some prospects for guarantees and insurance, but also identifies limitations and practical challenges with all options reviewed. Find the full note posted on our publication database.

New Publications on our Database, July 27th 2010

Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Turkey 2009 Review

The International Energy Agency (IEA) has released the latest in its series of policy reviews, titled "Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Turkey 2009 Review," which contains evaluations and recommendations of Turkish energy framework policies, sectoral policies and technologies. Turkey will likely see the fastest medium- to long-term growth in energy demand among the IEA member countries. It has a young and urbanising population and energy use is still comparatively low. To attract investments, the country needs to continue reforming its energy market. In the past few years, power sector reform has progressed significantly and comprised moving to cost-reflective wholesale tariffs; privatising distribution companies; launching a programme for privatising generation assets; and setting a date for full market opening. The May 2009 Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy outlines the way forward. The IEA congratulates Turkey for these reforms and urges it to pursue further reforms with relentless vigour. Turkey must see through its plans to increase competition and overall economic efficiency and to further reform tariffs. The plans exist; they now need to be implemented in full. Please find this note on our Publication Database.

The economic impact of climate change in Namibia - How climate change will affect the contribution of Namibia's natural resources to its economy

IIED released discussion paper:

Climate change is likely to exacerbate the dry conditions already experienced in Southern Africa. And when rainfall does come, it is likely to be in bursts of greater intensity leading to erosion and flood damage. But these predictions gain little policy traction in Southern African countries. Research in Namibia suggests that over 20 years, annual loses to the Namibian economy could be up to 6 per cent of GDP due to the impact that climate change will have on its natural resources alone. This will affect the poor most, with resulting constraints on employment opportunities and declining wages, especially for unskilled labour. Namibia must take steps to ensure that all its policies and activities are 'climate proofed' and that it has a strategy to deal with displaced farmers and farmworkers. The need to mainstream climate change into policies and planning is clear, and it is the responsibility of industrialised nations, who have largely created the problem of climate change, to help Namibia and other vulnerable countries cope with climate change impacts and plan for a climate constrained future.

Find the full paper on our Publication Database or in the Namibia Group.

Economic Report on Africa and other New Reports released in July, 2010

New report on Accelerating Climate Technologies:

Innovative Market Strategies to overcome Barriers to scale-up, July 2010

Following the Copenhagen Summit in 2009, there are two key issues to resolve: (1) how to accelerate breakthroughs in climate technology costs and performance and (2) how developed countries will cooperate with developing countries to speed the development and deployment of climate technologies at the pace and scale necessary to mitigate climate change. This report makes the case that (1) the barriers to rapid diffusion of new climate technologies are too great for the private sector alone to surmount and (2) targeted public sector interventions are needed all along the technology development pathway to overcome specific technical, financial, and market barriers. Two of the case studies analyzed here-Off-Grid Portable Solar Lighting (the Lighting Africa Program) and Agricultural Markets in Africa-offer successful examples of public-private market acceleration approaches to advance climate technology programs. These strategies tap distributed knowledge to overcome market barriers, unleash innovation, and push products to commercialization. Find the full report on our Publication Database.

UNDP releases Economic Report on Africa 2010:

Promoting high-level sustainable growth to reduce unemployment in Africa, July 2010

The lingering effects of the recent global economic crisis took a heavy toll on economic activity in Africa, retarding progress towards achieving the continent's development goals. In many countries, the crisis has jeopardized progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the objectives of AU and its NEPAD programme. However, the crisis provides African countries with an opportunity to reorient their long-term growth and development policy frameworks. This will ensure that the expected economic recovery is characterized by high and sustained growth rates as well as high employment-intensity to alleviate poverty.

It is against this backdrop that UNDP is pleased to present the Economic Report on Africa (ERA) 2010, a joint undertaking between the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and the African Union Commission (AUC). ERA 2010 broadly assesses recent global economic developments, and economic and social conditions and emerging issues in Africa, including trade negotiations, financing development and climate change. This report explores a theme of foremost importance to the long-term economic and social development of the continent: promoting high-level sustainable growth to reduce unemployment in Africa. Find the full report on our Publication Database.

Find also New Reports published on Emission Trading Schemes and New Market Mechanisms among Green Technology uploaded recently to our Publication Database.

New publications added on July 13th 2010

New report on MDG´s and Equality, July 2010, english

The UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) has released a report titled "Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with equality in Latin America and the Caribbean. Progress and challenges".The report finds that CC greatly contributes to making the supply of natural resources uncertain, and deaclres power as a key theme both for development and the environment. The report is linking environmental degradation and poverty, highlights the poor suffering most from environmental degradation as a result of air and water pollution, the degradation of forests and fisheries, and the effects of CC in general. Find the full report in english on our database.

International Energy Agency (IEA) releases New Report on Energy Technologies for Decision Makers

To meet the challenges of energy security and climate change as well as the growing energy needs of the developing world, a global energy technology revolution is essential. This was the key message of the 2008 edition of Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP). But is this fundamental transformation happening? What are the key technologies that can play a role? What are the costs and benefits? And what policies do we need? This new ETP 2010 explores such questions and many others, drawing on the extensive expertise of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and its energy technology network. Find the executive summary on our database.

Agenda: 11th session of the Ad Hoc Working Group, July 2010, english

UNFCCC has published ist annotated agenda (FCCC/AWGLCA/2010/9) for the 11th session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA 11), which will take place from 2-6 August 2010, in Bonn, Germany.

The AWG-LCA will be invited to continue its negotiations of the outcome to be presented to the 16th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) in Cancun, Mexico, at the end of 2010. For the session, the AWG-LCA chair has prepared a second iteration (FCCC/AWGLCA/2010/8) of a text to facilitate negotiations amongst parties reflecting her sense of how the text could be advanced based on the work undertaken by the AWG-LCA at its 10th session.

COP 16, Mexico welcomes delegates to UNFCCC & Kyoto

COP 16, United Nations Climate Change Conference, Cancún

Mexico welcomes the delegates of the States Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, observers, international officials, media representatives and participants from organized civil society.

As the host country, Mexico will hold a plural and inclusive conference and will spare no effort in facilitating the building of understandings among States Parties to ensure that COP16/CMP6 deliver concrete and effective results for tackling the global challenge of climate change. Mexico will encourage the widest participation and dialogue among the various actors involved in the conference as well as the search for common solutions.As the host country, Mexico will hold a plural and inclusive conference and will spare no effort in facilitating the building of understandings among States Parties to ensure that COP16/CMP6 deliver concrete and effective results for tackling.

For more information please vistit the website on COP 16.

Millennium Development Goals Report 2010

The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010 was launched in New York by the Secretary-General on 23 June 2010. The report, which presents the yearly assessment of global progress towards the MDGs, warns that while some progress has been made, it is uneven. And it pinpoints the areas where the accelerated efforts are needed to meet MDGs by 2015. (Press materials)

The report is based on a master set of data compiled by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG indicators led by the Statistics Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

The report is available in all UN languages. Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish

New Reports published by HDRO now available, June 29 2010

Please find below some of the new publications that have been added to our Publications Database. You can sign up to receive email alerts from our site by clicking "Email Notifications" on your right and filling out your email address.

New Report: Linking Climate Change Policies To Human Development

Analysis and Advocacy, June 2010, English

It is with great pleasure that the Human Development Report Office (HDRO) and the Bureau of Development Policy's Environment and Energy Group (EEG) present this guidance note for regional, national and sub-national human development report teams on linking climate change policies to human development analysis and advocacy. This note has been prepared in response to the growing demand for guidelines to support the work of report teams and partners in integrating human development analysis and advocacy into more equitable, sustainable and climate-resilient develop­ment planning and policy debates. The note is not prescriptive; rather, it explores each stage of report preparation-from initial options for report objectives and partnerships, through research and consultation, to dissemination and follow up-while highlight­ing key conceptual, data, analytical, policy and advocacy issues for teams to adapt according to regional and national contexts. This report is in english.

Climate Change in Moldova - Socio-Economic Impact and Policy Options for Adaptation, June 2010, English

The 2009/2010 National Human Development Report, "Climate Change in Moldova: Socio-Economic Impact and Policy Options for Adaptation", provides a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the strong impact of climate variability and climate change, and extreme weather events on sectors vital to human development in Moldova: water resources, ecosystems, agriculture and energy, transport infrastructure and health. The United Nations Development Programme Moldova Report makes clear that "Climate change is global, but its effects are local". The Report also examines how well the country's development agenda aligns with climate change realities, and with formulating integrated policy proposals.

China and a Sustainable Future - Towards a Low Carbon Economy and Society, June 2010, English

UNDP China took the initiative to focus this National Human Development Report on the topic of "Sustainable Future: Towards a Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Society". By analyzing both the risks and potential benefits to China of a shift to a low carbon economy and society, it is hoped that this report will provide a considered contribution to China's rapidly evolving policies in this area. The report highlights that, if China can fully grasp the opportunities at hand, it will be possible to move to a society which is not only environmentally sustainable, but which creates the conditions for greater job creation, greater resource efficiency and energy security, enhanced food security, and better health outcomes for its people; a society which, in line with China's own Xiaokang vision, is well balanced and moderately prosperous.

Energy Sector and Sustainable Development, June 2010, English

The 13th Human Development Report for the Russian Federation, Energy Sector and Sustainable Development, assesses impact of the energy sector on the country's economy and human development. The global economic crisis has brought many problems, but it also offers a window of opportunity for Russia to transform its energy sector, which evolved in its present form during the late XX century, into a modern high-tech vanguard for the national economy in the XXI century, with due respect for the environment and human health. Issues, which are the traditional subject matter of human development reports - economic development, income levels, employment, education and health care - are discussed in the context of energy theme. The Report is intended for top managers, political scientists, scientific researchers, teachers and high school students.

Realising Rights, Protecting Forests: An alternative vision for reducing deforestation, June 2010, English, French, Spanish

This new report has been launched at the UNFCCC talks in Bonn featuring eight case studies written by local NGOs on REDD and participation - from Indonesia (HuMa), Ecuador (CEPLAES), Democratic Republic of Congo (RRN + DGPA); REDD and land rights- from Brazil (ISA), Cameroon (CED), Papua New Guinea (EFF-PNG); and REDD and community forests - from Tanzania (TFCG + MJUMITA) , Nepal (FECOFUN). Primarily, the report is intended for opinion-formers and decisionmakers with a role in making and influencing national policy and legislation on REDD. The case studies show that respecting the rights and realities of indigenous peoples and forest-dependent communities is the only way to ensure that the forests remain standing. Published by The Accra Caucus on Forests and Climate Change.

New Publications added to our database June 24, 2010

Please find below some of the new publications that have been added to our Publications Database. You can sign up to receive email alerts from our site by clicking "Email Notifications" on your right and filling out your email address.

Physical Climate Science since IPCC AR4 - A brief update on new findings between 2007 and April 2010, English

This report provides an update of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), focusing on the physical climate system that in the IPCC work is addressed by its Working Group I. Progress is considered in the understanding of the human and natural drivers of climate change, climate observations, attribution, key climate feedback, as well as ocean acidification. Recent developments and near future prospects of climate modelling are also discussed in brief. Overall, the reports aim is to contribute to a global and comprehensive agreement on climate change with ambitious emission reduction commitments. Published by Markku Rummukainen, Jouni Räisänen, Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen and Halldór Björnsson.

For downloading the full report please follow this link:


This study measured the economic impacts of climate change on crop and livestock farming in Africa based on a cross-sectional survey of over 8000 farming households from 11 countries in east, west, north and southern Africa. Results show that net farm revenues are in general negatively affected by warmer and drier climates. Such results are counted to have important policy implications, especially for the suitability of the increasing tendency toward large-scale mono-cropping strategies for agricultural development in Africa and other parts of the developing world in light of expected climate changes.

Published by World Scientific Publishing Company


This study defines the rate of inequity aversion, distinguishing between the pure rate and the consumption rate. To be meassured is the rate of aversion to inequality in consumption as expressed in the development aid given by rich countries to poor ones between 1965 and 2005. The study proposes the social cost of carbon that is very sensitive to equity weighting and assumptions about the rate of risk and inequity aversion. Estimates of the consumption rate of inequity aversion for recent data suggest also that the equityweighted social cost of carbon is less than 50% larger than the unweighted estimate.

Published by World Scienntific Publishing Company

Summary and Analysis of the BONN UNFCCC June 2010 Negotiations

The Environment and Energy Group (EEG) has provided a summary and analysis of the June 2010 Bonn negotiations on Climate Change. The summary is arranged as a brief and transparent review of the main political issues that characterised the session and assessment of the status of negotiations overall.

Download the UNFCCC June 2010 Negotiations Summary and Analysis & Fast Finance Table (English)

Download the French, Spanish or Russian version.

We will also shortly provide a detailed technical analysis of the current proposals under each area of negotiation, including the implications of these proposals for development and possible UNDP responses.

New Publications added to our database June 17, 2010

Please find below some of the new publications by the South Centre that have been added to our Publications Database. You can sign up to receive email alerts from our site by clicking "Email Notifications" on your right and filling out your email address.

The Climate Competitiveness Index 2010, June 2010, English

In collaboration with AccountAbility UNEP has commissioned The Climate Competitiveness Index 2010. The 2010 Climate Competitiveness Index
assesses climate accountability and performance to identify how 95 countries are progressing towards 
the low carbon economy.. The 2010 Index shows that in spite of uncertainty surrounding international climate negotiations, countries have forged ahead with low carbon growth strategies in the first quarter of 2010. One third of countries show promising gains in low carbon economic growth since the Copenhagen climate accord. Please find this full report also here:

The Role of Collective Action and Property Rights in Climate Change Strategies, English, June 2010

Ensuring that poor people can adapt to climate change and benefit from mitigation measures such as payments for carbon sequestration requires more than technology. Key institutions must also be in place. From an „Environmental Justice" perspective this brief provides an overview of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies, highlighting the institutional arrangements for each component, to ensure that poor people in developing countries are not excluded. Published by IFPRI. Please find the full policy brief on the following link:

DOE FY 2011 Budget Request for Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment: Analysis and Recommendations, June 2010, English

This analysis provides an overview the Department of Energy's fiscal year 2011 ERD3 budget proposals, and lays out actionable recommendations to strengthen the effort. The authors suggest that Congress should consider increasing the proposed budgets in some areas, such as demonstration of carbon storage technology in a range of geologies, and international ERD3 cooperation. The authors offer strong support for ARPA-E, the Energy Department's new effort focused on funding high-risk, potentially game-changing energy technologies that no one else would fund. Given the time required to turn such new ideas into successes, the paper argues, Congress should give ARPA-E 5 to 10 years of strong, consistent funding to give it a chance to prove its worth. Please find the report here:

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Filed under: indigenous people, Property rights, collective action

Announcement:10th meeting of the Adaptation Fund Board

Briefing on the 10th meeting of the Adaptation Fund Board held in June 14 -16, 2010 in Bonn, Germany, English

Germantwatch has advised a briefing according the 10th meeting of the Adaptation Fund Board. The Adaptation Fund (AF) was established under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The goal is to finance concrete adaptation projects to support adaptation of developing countries to negative impacts of climate change. A key issue on this years agenda will be priority funding and support for countries with particular vulnerability.The full briefing can be found on our publication database, published on June14th, 2010.

New Publications added to our database June 10, 2010

Please find below some of the new publications that have been added to our Publications Database. You can sign up to receive email alerts from our site by clicking "Email Notifications" on your right and filling out your email address.

Human Development Report 2009/10: China and a Sustainable Future: Towards a Low Carbon Economy and Society, June 2010, English

The UN Development Programme (UNDP) has commissioned a report focusing on China´s sustainable future in the context of its progressive urbanization. The report proposes a strategy towards a low carbon economy and society and was coordinated by the Renmin University of China. As China continues to unprecedented economic and social progress the report argues that the country has "no other choice" but to shift to a low carbon development path. By further investing in a green economy and green growth underpinned by emerging green technologies, China could now leapfrog over decades of traditional development based on high polluting fuels. There is also an invaluable window of opportunity to build new low carbon communities from scratch: in the next 20 years, 350 million people are expected to move into Chinese cities, using housing and transport infrastructure that is yet to be built. Please find the full report by following this link.

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Legal Resources: An overview of the current state, June 2010, English

The informal Note on Offshore Carbon Capture and Storage, Onshore Carbon Capture and Storage, Climate Change and Emissions Trading and Environmental Liabilities offers information on these key legal issues. Each section will contain explanations of the purpose and objectives of the various international, European and national laws analysed and provide possible interpretations of how they may affect carbon capture and storage projects. The section Dedicated CCS Legislation (current & proposed) provides links to legislation and proposed legislation which deals directly with CCS activities. Published by Carbon Capture Legal Programme.

Accelerating Green Investment Schemes: First experiences and lessons learned, June 2010, English

This working paper examines flexibilities of „green" investment schemes among the given modalities. The paper provides insights into different planned or implemented GIS schemes, analyzes the role of GIS as carbon finance instrument in CEE countries and discusses the market dynamics that have evolved. Published by Joanneum Research Institute.

Book Release: Requiem for a Species: Why We Resist the Truth About Climate Change, April 2010, English

This book spells out the enormous implication of the failure to reach an agreement at Copenhagen. The book attempts to explain why we have failed to act, despite numerous scientific reports emphasizing how dire the future looks. In a final chapter called 'Reconstructing a Future', Cthe author also examines at what we can do now and how we should act. Published by the

"This remarkable publication brings together the scientific imperatives of taking action in the field of climate change. Hamilton highlights the political inertia which is currently acting as a roadblock. In the wake of the weak outcome at Copenhagen, this book assumes added significance in breaking resistance to the truth about climate change." RK Pachauri, Chair IPCC

For a complete list of publications please go to our Publications Database. You are invited to add publications to the database by clicking on the "Submit Publication" link.